Also, while your menstrual cycle may not affect weight gain or loss, losing or gaining weight can affect your menstrual cycle. Women who lose too much weight or lose weight too quickly may stop having a period, or have irregular periods. Women who have obesity may also have irregular periods. A regular period is a sign of good health. Reaching a healthy weight can help women who have irregular periods to have cycles that are more regular. Learn more in our Menstrual Cycle section.
Top Quote: "I’m sharing every lesson to getting there—not as a drill sergeant and definitely not as a guru—as a friend who gets it and never wants anyone else to struggle alone. I’ve learned more in the last ten years than I ever thought possible, and I’m laying it bare here, one post a time—every lesson I’ve learned on losing weight,real advice on maintenance, thoughts on depression, how I’ve moved beyond binge eating, lifestyle bits that make me feel good inside and out, and all the healthy recipes I make regularly.”

When researchers at the University of Tennessee put a group of volunteers on one of two diets—one high in calcium and one not—and cut each group’s calorie intake by 500 calories, they found that the people getting calcium lost twice as much weight (an average of 13lbs) compared with people on the standard diet. Study author Michael Zemel, Ph.D., believes extra calcium helps the body burn more—and store less—fat.
I’d love to know what shakes you use. I’m a pretty picky eater who struggles to find the healthy options I can have that fit my tastes. I need a shake (protein/veggie/fruit/healthy) that I can suffer through to help me get some nutrients and fill me up when I’m wanting to grab those crackers or chocolate chips instead 🙂 I also need to give up diet soda because I know that enhances my salt/sugar cravings.
“Every morning I drink a cup of warm water with half a lemon squeezed into it, a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, and a dash of cayenne pepper,” says Michelle Keough. This helps her start her day off on a healthy note while getting her hydrated after a long night. This trick, combined with eating meals built around protein and veggies, helped her lose 20 pounds and keep it off.
Hi Adam. Your story is amazing & Ive been searching for a way to lose weight & look slim. I’m not obese or anything but I am overweight for my height. I’m 5’2″ & I way 137. I really want to be 125 or 120. Hopefully by the summer. But I’m also 16 & built. I’m active in sports & go to the gym regularly but my diet isn’t very healthy but I don’t know with my age if I should cut back on the foods you have suggested. What should I do?
About: Healthier key lime pie. Lower-calorie chocolate caramel snickers bars. Lower carb chocolate-filled cookies. If you have a sweet tooth but are trying to lose weight, Kaylie’s blog is for you. Kaylie is a registered dietitian who has a sweet tooth of her own. So, naturally, she figured out recipe swaps for making desserts with lower calories while maintaining all the sweet deliciousness. Talk about having your cake and eating it too.
Use a calorie-needs calculator like LIVESTRONG.COM’s MyPlate app to figure out your daily calorie needs, then subtract calories to create your energy deficit. With an app like MyPlate, you can factor in your weight-loss goal, and it will tell you the exact number of calories (as well has how much fat, protein and carbohydrates) you need to reach that goal.
Julie is a Weight Watchers leader & ambassador, breast cancer survivor, and healthy lifestyle blogger for The Weight Of My Weight. Her blog documents her weight loss journey that begins at 212 pounds, losing 52 pounds, and all the fluctuations that happen in between. Her ultimate goal is to be healthy, maintain her weight and hopefully inspire others to do the same. She shares healthy recipes and weight loss tips to finding balance throughout your journey.
Yes whey: the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that high-protein shakes are a vital part of a weight loss plan, so don’t hold back – especially at breakfast. According to research from the University of Bath, eat 700 calories before 11am and you’ll have better blood sugar levels than those who skipped the most important meal of the day. It’s the best excuse you’ll have of sticking with a morning fry-up and avoiding a costly Starbucks lunch.
I am just starting the keto diet. I have recently gained 40 lbs. since finding out that my thyroid has not been working correctly. I thought that once I started the medications to help the thyroid work better, I’d drop that weight right away. I was way off! I have a cruise in 6 months and need to get this weight off. Is this diet really going to work??
Whereas many beverages can increase your waistline (see above), there is one that is guaranteed to trim your tummy: water. Drinking plain ol’ H2O works because staying fully hydrated tells your body it’s okay to release any extra water it’s retaining, decreasing the accompanying bloat. Plus, drinking water has been proven to reduce cravings for sweets, lower your appetite, and help you feel satiated faster. Here 9 more ways to bust belly fat in a single day!
Erika Nicole Kendall—or Evil Fitness Barbie, as she calls herself—went from a self-proclaimed couch potato to a NASM-certified trainer who specializes in weight loss, women's fitness, and nutrition. The “Emotional Eating” subsection of her blog, A Black Girl’s Guide To Weight Loss, is worth checking out for its unfiltered look at postpartum depression and self-care.
About: The thing that’s most appealing about Alexis’ blog is its tagline: “One girl’s adventure in moderation.” It’s a testament to Alexis’s general approach to life — she knows she won’t succeed unless she balances weight loss and being healthy with living life to its fullest. Alexis’ writing style is quirky and fun. It touches serious subjects, but with a light style that will have you feeling inspired and amused by the end of each post.
Cut out ‘fat-bombs’ and bulletproof coffee. These are okay to consume for satiety, but if your goal is weight loss, too much fat will prevent your body from using its own fat stores for energy (refer to point above for more information). Just one bulletproof coffee may contribute nearly 50 grams of fat and almost 500 calories to your day. Imagine what a few cups of coffee, or several fat bombs, might do to your weight loss.
Try not to think that you can't eat certain foods because you're "too overweight." According to the National Eating Disorder Association, dieting, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction can become internalized at a young age and lead to an eating disorder. Change your mindset to celebrate the healthy foods you're eating because they're helping your body stay healthy and energized.

Choose workouts that require your entire body to exert an effort. This way, you work every muscle group and burn calories with more muscles at one time, like multi-tasking with your exercise. For instance, combine a form of resistance training (try raising small dumbbells overhead as you work) with your arms while you jog or cycle with your legs.[4]
Among the potential fat-burning substances, green tea may be among the better options. A review article published in Obesity Reviews in 2011 noted that although there isn't enough evidence to recommend most fat-burning supplements, green tea and caffeine have been shown to increase fat-burning. You may want to make green tea your beverage of choice. Not only is it calorie-free, but it also appears to enhance the belly fat loss brought on by exercise, according to a study published in the Journal of Nutrition in 2009. The combination of antioxidant substances called catechins and caffeine in the green tea may cause increased energy expenditure and fat-burning, according to a review article published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry in 2011.

If you're like most people, when beach time or a certain big event is approaching, you're probably desperate to lose weight quickly and get in the best shape of your life fast, right? But this approach often backfires... Discover how to lose weight quickly without regaining the weight back and compromising your health, plus a failproof solution (at the end of the page).
So I am not going to lie. This is absolutely a post that I never in one million and one years thought I would share on my blog. What started as an interior design blog quickly became a “follow our journey” blog and now I just chat about anything and everything that I love or am going through or just feel like sharing. I’ll blame it on the fact that I get bored easily or maybe that there are only so many room reveals one can do each month. Whatever the case may be, I still never ever planned on sharing THIS. I mean who searches through bins and bins of old photo albums to hunt down the worst images taken of themselves in their entire life? Well that would be me. And then on my blogger girl’s trip several weeks ago, someone spotted the image on my driver’s license (yes it is forever old but who wants to wait in the DMV line to simply change their photo?!?) and so the weight loss conversation ensued. The story of how I once weighed about 100lbs more than I do today…
I’ve been keto for 2 months now and lost 14lbs the first two weeks. I haven’t lost anything in over a month so I feel a bit frustrated. I’ve been very disciplined and I just worry that I won’t lose anymore. Is this stall normal? I have a little over 40lbs that I’d like to lose and since I’m quite short and suffering from endometriosis, my weight is primarily in my thighs and hips and it seems to take the longest to lose. My disorder also affects my energy levels to due to the hormonal issues. I just really would like to see success eventually because I feel like I’m at my wits end.

Carb crazy? Consider this: Refined carbohydrates, such as bread, potatoes and rice, create a surge in insulin that in turn drives down your resting metabolic rate, explains Aronne. "It's important to keep carbohydrates in your diet, but really focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains, which have less of an effect on insulin levels," he explains. And when buying whole-grain breads and cereals, make sure the first ingredient listed is whole wheat, whole oat or cracked wheat.


So here’s where I have to say that I AM NOT a dieting or fitness professional. Even having to write that is humorous. I am absolutely NEITHER of those. And that is one huge reason that I was so reluctant to share my story. Yet as my sweet friends told me over our trip last month, my blog is to inspire and to them, my weight loss story could be inspiring. So once again, I am not a professional so please DO NOT take anything I say as advise. This is just my story and if it motivates one single person to change their lifestyle, I would be absolutely thrilled to have shared these glorious images 😉


Consider if this ‘plateau’ follows a period of significant weight loss. Have you been at the same weight for less than 3 months after a period of significant loss? If the answer is yes, it may not be a true weight loss plateau and may be part of the normal weight loss process. Weight loss may pick up again shortly. This may just be your new stable weight for a period of time before weight loss continues.

i started eating Keto on Monday, 12/4/17, for weight loss purposes.Need to lose 1/2 my weight to get to my goal weight, so i know its going to be a long journey. Reading this article helped me focus my head on different things than just the number on the scale. i especially liked the way you said that if you didnt see a change on the scale, you just thought that your body was doing something more important. im going to trust the journey and get to my goal eventually!


Getting healthier and losing weight is among the most popular new year’s resolutions for good reason, but sticking with it is easier said than done. If one of your goals in 2019 is weight loss, you’re in luck. There are many ways to get motivated to start losing weight and build success that can last a lifetime. Let’s make this year the best yet, by sticking to our weight loss resolutions with help from these tips:
Only 11% of Americans correctly estimate their ideal daily calorie requirements, according to one survey. The rest of us tend to overestimate, says Bonnie Taub-Dix, RD, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Let's say you assume that consuming 2,000 calories per day will allow you to reach your target weight, but it really takes 1,800: Those extra 200 are enough to keep an additional 20 pounds on your frame. 
Estrogen and progesterone have significant impacts on carbohydrate metabolism. At different parts in the menstrual cycle, carbohydrates are processed either much more efficiently or with much more fat storage. This is the secret to female carbohydrate cycling. Instead of sticking to a simple regimen provided by a personal trainer or some internet forum, the best thing you can do to maximize the effectiveness of your carb cycling is sync it up with your menstrual cycle.
About: Inspiring. That’s the first word that comes to mind when describing Gabby’s blog. Gabby used to tip the scales at 262 pounds and started a blog to chronicle her journey. Today, she weighs in at 140 pounds...in other words, half of her old self. But just because she dropped the pounds doesn’t mean she stopped being there for her readers. Thousands of articles and a whole lot of experience later, Gabby continues to share her weight loss wisdom and tons of healthy recipes with fans in an easy-to-follow — and often hilarious — way.
As noted above, our bike racer study (Phinney 1983) involved 9 lean men locked up while eating a precisely controlled ketogenic diet for 4 weeks.  In addition to daily weights, three methods were used to determine changes in body composition.  As a group, these subjects lost 1 kg of body weight in the first week of the ketogenic diet, all of which was attributable to reduced muscle glycogen stores (which were directly measured).  After that, their weights were stable for the next 3 weeks.  Unfortunately in this study we did not have the opportunity to measure metabolic rate, but based on our body composition data, anything over a 3% increase in energy expenditure associated with the ketogenic diet would have shown up as non-water associated weight loss (by implication, a loss of body fat).   Clearly these 9 men did not demonstrate an obvious increase in body fat loss in the first 4 weeks of keto-adaptation.
About: Kelsey’s blog is packed with easy-to-follow healthy recipes and fitness routines (and they’re not just your run-of-the-mill workouts, either). They’re formulated or endorsed from Kelsey herself — a 50 pound weight loss success story. Kelsey had been pretty fit and thin her whole life, but shortly after leaving college, countless nights of eating out and drinking led to her packing on an extra 50 pounds. Unhappy, Kelsey decided to make a change. What’s especially inspirational about her story is that she did so slowly. She made small changes, slowly started eating cleaner and eventually lost all the weight. Now, five years later, she’s still fit and sharing her story on her blog and in her books, fitness routines and recipes with readers. She even hosts weight loss challenges (with cash prizes) to really cheer people on and give them incentive to keep going.
"Protein is great for fat loss. It helps build and preserve lean muscle tissue and can increase the amount of calories you burn. It’s also a great source of energy that helps you feel fuller for longer, so you’re less tempted to snack. Good sources include chicken breast, tuna, eggs, milk and chickpeas. And if you’re finding it difficult to avoid snacks that are high in carbohydrates, try substituting them for protein shakes or bars. Remember also to opt for the lean sources of protein because some sources can be high in saturated fat."
In just over a week, we’ll be counting down till midnight and ringing in 2019. The start of the New Year motivates millions of Americans to lose weight, but why wait until the ball drops to get started? In this Holiday Weight Loss Survival Guide, we discuss how getting active can get you through New Year’s celebrations and help you with your resolutions.
This means that the more fat you have, the more estrogen you’ll have, and it also seems to work the other way around. For example, estrogen overload can exacerbate hypothyroid issues, slowing metabolism and causing weight gain. If that “estrogen overload” comes from obesity in the first place, this can very quickly become a vicious cycle (you’re overweight because you have thyroid problems, and you have thyroid problems because you’re overweight).

There are endless ways to do interval training. One simple example: First, warm up for 10 to 15 minutes. Then, pick up your effort so you’re working hard (a nine on a scale of one to 10—you should be breathing hard, but not gasping) for 30 to 60 seconds. Go easy for one minute. Repeat for a total of 5 times, and the cool down for two to three minutes.

However, if you’re already on medication and think it could be hampering weight loss efforts, speak with your doctor about your options. It may be possible to transition to a more natural option, like a natural form of birth control, coming up with a plan to transition off medication or simply trying an alternative that’s not known to cause weight gain.

Estrogen and progesterone have significant impacts on carbohydrate metabolism. At different parts in the menstrual cycle, carbohydrates are processed either much more efficiently or with much more fat storage. This is the secret to female carbohydrate cycling. Instead of sticking to a simple regimen provided by a personal trainer or some internet forum, the best thing you can do to maximize the effectiveness of your carb cycling is sync it up with your menstrual cycle.


Can I comment on your endometriosis and weight loss? I am no expert, but what I found is that what helps is taking a probiotic to get your gut healed. I will kill the endometriosis and help you with loss. try a 15 strain probiotic. In south africa we have nature fresh that gives you a fresh probiotic per day and not expensive at all….just my piece of 5 cent…marli

This is my first time to your blog, I found it when googling “Instant Pot Weight loss”. Reading your story, it was like reading my own biography, seriously its scary lol. I am so glad you have found a healthy balance. I struggle working as a nurse with crazy shift hours, a hubby working crazy shift hours and a toddler (who eats healthier than I do thanks to gerber organic food pouches – meanwhile i’m polishing off the bag of krispy kreme kruellers haha), – I HATE cooking/meal planning. My struggle is real with needing stupid easy but healthy recipes. Your story is inspiring because I feel like we could be soul sisters haha and I have hope that i can learn to cook and eat better not only for myself but for my hubby and baby.

I must remember to measure myself to see if I’ve lost any inches – perhaps I’ll start with centimetres as that might be more realistic and have a better feel good factor! The desire to shed pounds is different for everyone. It’s a case of finding and attaining a happy medium and feeling good about yourself. Too thin isn’t always good but neither is obesity.
About: Elizabeth’s list of credentials for writing the kind of blog that helps you stay healthy is a long one — she graduated with dual degrees in food & nutrition and mass communication & journalism, and has now dedicated herself to developing healthy recipes and tips for achieving a wholesome, balanced lifestyle. She also shares her own musings — and her stunning photography — to add a personal touch that connects with readers in a meaningful way.
Also some research shows that the human body is primed to consume most of its calories during daylight hours. But the lifestyle is problematic for many: Because family meals and dinners with friends often are scheduled for after sunset, "people who try to stop eating after 7pm can’t do it every day for the rest of their lives," says Dr. Seltzer, who supports an alternative strategy: Eating a hearty meal at your regular dinnertime.

Eating too little can be extremely dangerous for your body. According to Medical News Today, having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of under 18.5 can lead to malnutrition, osteoporosis, developmental problems, a weakened immune system, anemia, and chronic fatigue. Healthline reports that the average woman needs about 2000 calories per day to maintain her weight and about 1500 calories to lose one pound of weight per week, though you should consult with your healthcare provider to see what's best for you.
About: Misty’s more than just a “fat girl,” as she puts it. So much more. Misty started blogging about her weight loss about four years ago after she experienced a pulmonary edema and several pulmonary embolisms following the birth of her fourth daughter — all caused by excessive fluids in her body and all nearly killing her. She also found out she has a blood disorder called Factor V Leiden, something she was born with. Since starting her original blog “I Am Not Just a Fat Girl,” Misty’s weight loss journey has had ups and downs, but ultimately she accepted her body and now blogs to inspire others who are looking to lose weight, too.
Hi mi 16 years old and I’m scared to get on the scale to weigh myself because the last time I was 222lbs and that’s horrible I know that. I cry a lot because I just can’t seem to lose weight and I get called names based on my weight a lot. I’m really a girly girl and I hate going shopping now because of my weight. I really want to lose my stomach fat, lose thighs, arms,back, and everything else or at least tighten it up because I’m going to be a senior next year. And I doubt I’ll get asked to the prom If I look the way I look. So that’s my goal for the summer. I’ve been looking online for a while to find ways to lose weight I even considered pills and when I get like that (desperate) I even think about just ending all my problems permanently if you know what I mean.

Fast forward several years later, I had another baby (Winter) and came out of that pregnancy about 40-50 lbs over my end goal weight. I had always had this dream to finally hit the big “100” in weight loss. By 2013 I had begun to take some classes at the gym and count calories a little more but I in NO WAY did anything extreme. And I honestly believe that is the key to weight loss and to keeping it off. It was NO quick journey to that final number but by July 2013, I hit 120 lbs and had officially lost 100 lbs…
I learned (and am still learning) to GIVE MYSELF GRACE. This is something I will probably work on my entire life. It’s humbling to know that even when I work so hard, I will fall short and miss the mark because I am human. With that in mind, I must forgive myself and love myself. It's important to keep my head up and remind myself that the tiny baby steps lead to progress.
Sometimes, to whip your body into shape, you have to get a little nutty. While nuts are high in fat, it’s that very fat that makes them such powerful weapons in the war against a ballooning belly. In fact, research from Reina Sofia University Hospital reveals that study participants who consumed a diet rich in monounsaturated fats, like those in nuts, over a 28-day period gained less belly fat than their saturated fat-consuming counterparts while improving their insulin sensitivity.
Walking is also a great way to burn calories. An average person can burn 6 calories by walking for a minute. Begin by walking one mile a day and remember to walk at a brisk pace. Slow down if you find yourself out of breath and increase the distance to be covered gradually. Use the stairs instead of lift. According to certain studies, walking for 15 minutes in a day can increase your life expectancy by 3 years. This is one of the easy ways to lose weight for teenagers!
Good news – I lost that 1 kilo again. Yeah! Without buying anything other than a library ticket go and look for info on food combining and natural hygiene. Also a 1980s book that is a way of life that worked for many is also extremely informative about what food groups are and what a food group actually is eg what proteins actually are and where to find them; how our body works in assimilating and getting rid of waste. I’ve pulled out my old copy of the book again and am having a go at the suggestion for dividing the day into 3 cycles : noon – 8 pm to eat; 8- 4 am for body to assimilate; 4-noon to get rid of waste. It depends on what you combine to eat together ie not carbs and proteins in same meal but you can have as much veg or salad with either. Not fruit – that’s for the morning and as much as you want till noon.
OMG, I can totally relate to everything you said. I have already lost 16 kg (about 35 pounds) with home exercising. You are so pretty, congratulations. An inspiration to all of us. I just fell in love with healthy eating and exercising, so much that I enter the hall of unhealthy foods in the market and don’t want to buy any of them. Surprising. I still have a long way to go, but will do it!

Control Your Environments. Another simple strategy to help cut calories is to control your environment -- everything from stocking your kitchen with lots of healthy options to choosing the right restaurants. That means avoiding the temptation by staying away from all-you-can-eat restaurants. And when it comes to parties, "eat a healthy snack before so you won't be starving, and be selective when you fill your plate at the buffet," suggests Ward. Before going back for more food, wait at least 15 minutes and have a big glass of water.
My body went through a slow weight gain throughout the years and because it was so slow, I didn’t really notice too much, or really, I noticed once it had already happened and the weight was there. I remember the times getting frustrated in dressing rooms, when older clothes didn’t fit, feeling terrible in my body, and the comparison of feeling like there were so many people around me that ate more unhealthy foods than me and exercised less that were somehow still so much smaller than I was. I thought that my body would stay the way it looked forever, no matter how hard I tried to change it. I wondered if I would ever accept how my body looked or be comfortable in it. For all of the years building up to this one, I was not quite hopeless, but always a little let-down in myself, specifically the choices I made, the way I felt, and the way I looked. I didn’t feel the best in my body and wanted peace.
ANYWAY, as far as the beginning of college goes, I thought a lot about nutrition and fitness and really wanted them to be incorporated into my life. For exercise, I joined the women’s ultimate frisbee team.  I honestly joined because the team was a built in community of really amazing people who were great friends but even better accountability partners that kept me coming to practice and pushing myself while I was there. We had practice for 2 hours about 3 times a week, and I never exercised outside of those times. On the topic of nutrition, I never thought I ate that bad. However, college dining halls can wreck your body. Unlimited buffets with more unhealthy than healthy options was not in my favor. Of course I ate salads, chicken/fish, and veggies on a regular basis, but I also ate my fair share of french fries, frozen yogurt, cookies, and whatever desserts were available. So many weekly activities and meetings had free food, and late night study snacks were a regular occurrence.

A 2012 study also showed that people on a low-carb diet burned 300 more calories a day – while resting! According to one of the Harvard professors behind the study this advantage “would equal the number of calories typically burned in an hour of moderate-intensity physical activity”. Imagine that: an entire bonus hour of exercise every day, without actually exercising. A later, even larger and more carefully conducted study confirmed the effect, with different groups of people on low-carb diets burning an average of between 200 and almost 500 extra calories per day.


About: Michelle’s first pregnancy was one of the best times of her life, but it was also a time when she gained weight. After her little one was born, Michelle started up her blog as a way to chronicle her weight loss and all her activities being a first-time mom. She lost nearly 60 pounds in six months, and is great if you’re looking for someone to follow who tries out new diets, fitness routines, healthy recipes and more. Oh yeah, and her crafts are amazing.
About: Bonnie’s been sharing her life — and family of 7 — with readers for years. But the reason she found her way onto our list is because of what she started Jan. 2 — a full-on commitment to cut out the junk food, soda and other unhealthy habits and lose weight. More than three months later, and she’s more than succeeded. Her daily struggle is the kind of thing anyone who’s stopped and started and stopped and then started again can attest to. But what really makes it special is that this time, she not stopping.
The best way to lower your cortisol levels is by decreasing stress. While it’s easier said than done, weight loss tips like this one involve you simply taking the time to put yourself and your health first. Practicing saying “no” to events and things you know will cause you stress, carve out time to exercise, set aside some time daily — even just 5 minutes — to meditate or practice gratitude and learn to recognize when you’re feeling extra worn out and need a time out.
I am having trouble calculating my correct macros..some sites have given me lower protein amounts but about the same or close to my daily carb and fat allowance…my current weight is 287lbs 5′ 8″ lite exercise (i’m a nurse); although I have just started with a beginners exercise program with 2-3 days of cardio so I am now able to get exercising in. I started Feb 20th, 2018 and lost 13 lbs so far (I know water weight but I will take it anyway) Please help
About: Lisa hails from the United Kingdom — a long way from the U.S., but with a touching story of strength that is impossible to ignore. Lisa suffers from Chronic Fatigue, a debilitating condition that’s slowed her down significantly in life, and one that she’s also managed to fight back from. Lisa started her blog about a year ago as a way to lose weight in the hope that it would help improve her disease — her fight is definitely an inspirational one to follow.
Annamarie Rivera’s weight loss transformation has been 10 years in the making. In early 2010, Annamarie weighed 400 pounds and wore a size 28 in pants. Today, she is over 230 pounds smaller and has an entirely new outlook on life. Her blog, Weight Loss With Annamarie, shares her incredible weight loss journey along with the joys and struggles that come along with it. Whether you’re just beginning your weight loss journey or trying to lose those last few pounds, Annamarie’s inspirational blog will help you persevere through the ups and downs.
×