Don’t skip meals. Eating a healthy breakfast increases your resting metabolic rate earlier in the day, keeps your energy levels high, and may help you resist the urge of high-calorie snacks throughout the day. Plan to eat a small snack or meal every two to four hours to keep your metabolism active. Eating regularly also keeps your blood sugar stable and reduces unhealthy calorie binges or deviations from your meal plan.
Of carbs and protein, that is. Carbs certainly aren’t the enemy; you can totally enjoy carbs and still lose weight. The trick is to choose something complex (like brown rice, quinoa, or whole grain bread) or something refined (like white rice, white pasta, and white bread), and pair it with a protein. So if you’re having crackers for a snack, make sure you also eat some almonds or a stick of string cheese. “I always incorporate a protein and carbohydrate at every meal,” Jim White, RD, ACSM Health, and owner of Jim White Fitness & Nutrition Studios told us. “It can curb your appetite and it slows down the glycemic index of some of your higher sugar foods.”
Stavrou, S., Nicolaides, N. C., Papageorgiou, I., Papadopoulou, P., Terzioglou, E., Chrousos, G. P., … Charmandari, E. (2016, July 31). The effectiveness of a stress-management intervention program in the management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Molecular Biochemistry, 5(2), 63–70. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996635/
Choose Liquid Calories Wisely. Sweetened drinks pile on the calories, but don't reduce hunger like solid foods do. Satisfy your thirst with water, sparkling water with citrus, skim or low-fat milk, or small portions of 100% fruit juice. Try a glass of nutritious and low-calorie vegetable juice to hold you over if you get hungry between meals. Be careful of alcohol calories, which add up quickly. If you tend to drink a glass or two of wine or a cocktail on most days, limiting alcohol to the weekends can be a huge calorie saver.
"Order without looking at the menu. Almost every restaurant has the basics—veggies, grains, and protein. If you go in knowing what you want, I guarantee you'll be able to make a meal. If you're too uncomfortable to ask for what you need, tell a white lie: Say you're allergic. I know it's controversial to suggest this, but women in particular can really have trouble standing up for their own needs. So if you want the broccoli soup puréed without cream, tell the waiter you're lactose intolerant."

Like many other overweight and obese people, particularly women, you may have tried time and time again to lose weight with little to no success. You may feel discouraged and wonder what’s the point in even trying? While you’re not alone in these feelings and frustrations, there are some key weight loss tips involved in women’s weight loss you might not know about — and that could make all the difference.


4. Core exercises – pick up a decently weighted kettlebell (maybe 25-30 lbs depending on your size and strength) and spend even 15 minutes a day doing a quick routine with them. Something like a kettlebell swing, pushups, and mason twists (this is a very common workout for me now). I do 4-6 sets of 25/15/20 of the above. It’s a great little workout and really doesn’t take any longer than 15-20 minutes.
Be realistic about the type of exercise you can do when starting a new program. If you are hoping to lose weight and keep it off, you will have to do more than a condensed fitness program. The best way to get into exercising is by picking exercises that you are actually going to do and, hopefully, enjoy. If you hate running, don’t make it your main form of exercise—you will need much more motivation each day than if you picked an exercise that you actually enjoy. Instead, try out different exercises until you find a few that you really love, like swimming, biking, or even Zumba.
Also, while your menstrual cycle may not affect weight gain or loss, losing or gaining weight can affect your menstrual cycle. Women who lose too much weight or lose weight too quickly may stop having a period, or have irregular periods. Women who have obesity may also have irregular periods. A regular period is a sign of good health. Reaching a healthy weight can help women who have irregular periods to have cycles that are more regular. Learn more in our Menstrual Cycle section.
Some women have trouble losing weight because of a hormonal problem. The thyroid gland, located in the neck, pumps out hormones that control body metabolism. If the gland's output isn't high enough, a condition known as hypothyroidism, the pounds can pile on - and stay on. If you think thyroid trouble might underlie your weight-loss difficulties, a doctor can test your hormone levels via a simple blood test. If you have a deficiency, effective treatment is available.
Obviously, it’s still possible to lose weight on any diet – just eat fewer calories than you burn, right? The problem with this simplistic advice is that it ignores the elephant in the room: Hunger. Most people don’t like to “just eat less”, i.e. being hungry forever. That’s dieting for masochists. Sooner or later, a normal person will give up and eat, hence the prevalence of “yo-yo dieting”.
With fitness, just get active. Find an activity you enjoy, and stick with it. Progress will come with time. If you’re a student, try walking to class or taking laps around buildings for study breaks. If you work full time, take a lap every hour or two, use your lunch break to work out, and just find something that works. One of my favorite things was taking walks when I talked on the phone to people – that’s at least a 30-60 min time to get moving.
I’ve been doing carb free for the last two weeks with one cheat meal per week. I did this same “diet” in high school and lost 48 pounds in 2 months (all while attending keg parties on the weekend, those were the days!) I’m not suceeding (thus far) as much as I had back then, despite being more regimented. Could this be because it’s a decade and a child later? I’ve heard your metabolism can change after childbirth. After reading through your postings I think some of my issue might be the amount of fruit I’m eating.. i:e Bananas in the morning and an afternoon snack of apples and peanut butter. Maybe I’m snacking too much on cheese? Oh I’m just so frustrated. I’m hoping after this week, now that I’m over being sick and can integrate cardio that the fat burn will pick up, but for now I’m super discouraged.
I have been following the slow-carb diet for nearly 3 weeks with no significant weight loss. I will admit I have made a few tweaks to fit my lifestyle. I go to the gym at 5:30am and do not have time or the desire to eat a big breakfast before going. So I normally make a whey protien shake with water and about 1/4 cup frozen berries (I know fruit is a no-no) when I get home from the gym at 7. I then eat breakfast – eggs, black beans and spinach at 10. Lunch is either a salad with beans or slice of deli turkey or chili. I have not eaten any grains, sweets etc… I do use milk in my coffee instead of heavy cream. Why is heavy cream a better choice? I do have a glass of red wine at night and an occasional serving of sugar free gelatin. I take a spin class 2-3 days a week and run 20 miles per week as I am training for a Ragnar Relay.
I am 55 and have been in menopause for 5-6 years, I also had my thyroid removed at 31, So I have a lot of trouble keeping weight off, never mind losing some. I am taking thyroid hormone as well as estrogen and progesterone. What is the best way for me to carb cycle? I feel like you are saying that I should be careful about going to low carb when carb cycling. So keto would be out then, I guess?
Unfortunately this reduces the debate to a very simplistic level.  Why?  Because we know that hunger, appetite, energy expenditure (i.e., metabolic rate), and even our propensity to be active are highly regulated by an increasing list of hormones and signaling molecules, not to mention our genetic inheritance (Bouchard 1994).  Moreover these various factors interact with each other – for example: exercise stimulates hunger, calorie restriction increases hunger and decreases spontaneous activity (Keys 1950), calorie restriction reduces metabolic rate, and exercise plus calorie restriction markedly reduces metabolic rate (Phinney 1988).

These days I am definitely not a hard core eater like I was back then. I have determined that to stay sane and happy and thin-ish, I have to give myself realistic expectations. The empty pantry and laser focus was not something that I could personally keep up with forever and ever. I have also learned that controlling my stress and anxiety is crucial for me. I am such a stress eater that recognizing my weak point has helped me so much in maintaining my weight loss. I still try and shop the perimeter of the store, I do not keep treats or chips in the house if I can help it because I recognize the fact that I have zero will power and I try and move at least a little every day. I give myself a weight gain-loss range rather than a set weight that I need to maintain forever. That way if I get off track I don’t sink back into feeling like I have failed and just give up on staying thin. To be completely honest, I am not 120 lbs anymore. I have gained about 10lbs since 2013 but am hoping to get back down a little over the Summer. And one last SUPER honest confession, after getting down to my goal weight of 120 lbs, I did have a full abdominoplasty in August 2013. It was literally my only option given the amount of extra skin I had from the weight loss.


About: On March 1, 2014, a visit to the doctor’s office really brought things home for Bobby. At 6 feet tall, Bobby weighed in at 345 pounds. To be at a healthy weight, his doctor said he needed to weigh 177 pounds, 168 pounds less than the weight he was at. In essence, Bobby realized he was essentially carrying around another person. The moment was the catalyst he needed to change. Rather than set any unrealistic expectations, Bobby decided to set the small, attainable goal of losing 2 pounds a week. So began his blog. And, guess what? It worked. Two years later, Bobby weighs in at 214 pounds (he looks great, by the way), and continues to take those small baby steps that are helping him achieve a healthy body. Bravo.
Spice up your favorite foods with a few dashes of hot cayenne pepper sauce. Cayenne pepper contains capsaicin, an appetite suppressant; a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that people who ate capsaicin consumed 200 fewer calories at the next meal. Not only will this help you cut back on calories and boost weight loss, but researchers have also found that capsaicin can help you lose belly fat and lose weight fast.

I actually woke up this morning thinking that just as we plan our days, our social lives, our journeys so we need to really plan what we eat and – like a route map – and stick to it without deviation if we want to reach our goal. So that’s what I’m about to try. It is, however, all too easy, come the weekend, to be influenced by those around us who are not so bothered by their reflection in the mirror. But to be true to myself I am going to listen to my body and be strong in aiming for that end goal and not succumb to all those crisps with double gin and tonics(!), slices of toast with eggs for breakfast and snacks that I am given that I haven’t been in control of making. I’m going to ask if I am actually hungry or just bored or just being plain greedy. I will need to politely decline my husband’s pampering treats of cheese, pickle on brown bread – or offer to make a more healthy snack of my choice and making – crisp bread, crudités. Or perhaps I’ll simply half the snack and give my husband the other. I’ll listen to my body.
Thanks for sharing:-). I find myself in a difficult situation. I had a slip and fall accident back in 2009. My injury was misdiagnosed and the physical therapy made things worse. To the point were I cannot even do aqua therapy. I suffer with chronic pain and was always an energetic, healthy, exercise driven person. I used to weigh in at 102-105 lbs. Now due to inactivity I’m about 137lbs. I am so happy to have found your website. I need help, I am home all the time due to the fact that I cannot sit for long because of a coccyx injury. I am so unhappy with my weight gain. Do you have an encouraging word for me today? I’ve tried everything I know to do. My dr told me ” I’m stuck”. But I don’t want to give up. Looking forward to your reply.

I’m newer to your blog, and all of your pictures screamed to me “effortlessly thin chick”, so imagine my open-mouthed surprise with your post today. At risk of sounding weird, i love your blog and you even more for having been so transparent! Weight is something i’ve struggled with my whole life, and in the last 8 years, i’ve also been dealing with an underactive thyroid. Some of the blogs i read have such beautifully thin bloggers pitching things like s’mores, and i think to myself, yeah right. So thanks. Thanks for being so real and relatable! Honesty is the best policy, and you will have helped so many for just laying it all out there truthfully. For many, if not most, it’s a struggle. God bless you!

21. Keep it simple. "I take a minimalist approach to nutrition: My diet consists of lean protein (chicken breast, egg whites, ground turkey), complex carbs (quinoa, sweet potatoes, oatmeal), healthy fats (coconut oil, almonds, avocados), and leafy green veggies. I eat as clean as I can—locally-grown vegetables, organic when possible, and minimally-processed everything."
I saw a post on pinterest for your pumpkin spice drink and started clicking around! Congratulations on your weight loss! I have just started working out regularly for the first time (just about) in my whole life. But what I’ve been learning slowly, even before I began the physical regimen, is how important it is to eat real food. Thanks to people around me who love food and their families health enough to really get informed about it, I’ve been seeing just how misinformed we are and how duped we can be by clever marketing that claims to be “healthy”. When I learned where skim milk comes from and how it’s made (and, for instance that it’s used to fatten pigs up) and that real dairy fats (in moderation) are linked to weight loss but “fat-free” items quite the opposite, I was stunned! Then I thought, of course! People were eating the real things long before heart disease and obesity ravaged our culture. When you start to learn about real nutrition instead of what we’ve been sold by industries, it can be a really great weight loss tool. And, I have to say thank you for using things like coconut milk in some of your recipes! I have a dairy intolerance and it’s nice to know that for the pumpkin spice recipe, at least, I wouldn’t have to tweak it myself!!! I look forward to reading more and trying some of your creations!
Last January, I started the year off training for a big kickass squat PR. 💪🏼⠀ ⠀ This year, my weights are lighter. My body looks and feels unfamiliar. My training is different, but I’m still thankful for the days I can move and feel strong. Something tells me the end result will be better than a squat PR. In fact, it’ll probably the best accomplishment of my life. 🤰🏻💗⠀ ⠀ #birthfit #babybuilding #movementislife #squats #fitpregnancy #secondtrimester
The sad truth is that conventional ideas – eat less, run more – do not work long term. Counting calories, exercising for hours every day and trying to ignore your hunger? That’s needless suffering and it wastes your time and precious willpower. It’s weight loss for masochists. Eventually almost everyone gives up. That’s why we have an obesity epidemic. Fortunately there’s a better way.

Fad diets are a big no; especially if you wish to lose weight on a long term basis. Numerous fad diets promise quick weight loss and they do yield results. But these results are short lived and are often accompanied by nutritional deficiencies and health risks. As a teenager, you require adequate supply of all vital nutrients to fulfill your body’s growth requirements. Fad diets are nutritionally unbalanced and so the weight lost in the course of diet is likely to be regained after the diet is over. So it is important to choose your diet plan carefully to incorporate a healthy balanced diet with more physical activity.
Such an inspirational story, Jennifer! The ones in the comments section too. I see that there are so many people are still struggling in dealing with weight management. So I have something for you guys. It’s red tea. Red tea reduces stress, aids in weight management because it burns fat passively, cleanses the body, and control cravings so you’ll get rid of the unnecessary calories. If you’re interested, I recommend this one: https://bit.ly/2I1DF0N 🙂

Go to a sauna. Saunas may result in a loss of a pint of sweat in just a quarter of an hour. To prevent dehydration, limit sauna time to 15 or 20 minutes per day. Again, this, like most very-quick-fix treatments that cause various kinds of excretion, is just a way to drop water weight, making you slim down for a day or so. This is not a permanent weight loss method. You should hydrate by drinking a few glasses of water after spending time in a sauna to reduce the risk of dehydration.


Get In Shape For Women is a small group, high intensity interval training (HIIT), personal training program with a purpose of empowering women through body transformation. At Get In Shape For Women there are no intimidating crowds or waiting for equipment, all GISFW workouts are delivered by appointment in a private, upscale boutique fitness studio. A highly skilled personal trainer works with up to 4 women at a time, for 30 or 60 minute sessions delivering our unique 4 component system that is scientifically proven to work:
Why does this popular plan work? For one thing, it pushes wildly healthy staples to the forefront (think: nuts, vegetables, fruit, olive oil). For another, it's simply delicious, thanks to it's focus on fresh, simply prepared dishes like grilled fish with lemon and whole wheat pita with hummus. Science agrees: One meta-review of 16 studies, found the eating M.O. helped those on it lose an average of 8.5 pounds.
About: On March 1, 2014, a visit to the doctor’s office really brought things home for Bobby. At 6 feet tall, Bobby weighed in at 345 pounds. To be at a healthy weight, his doctor said he needed to weigh 177 pounds, 168 pounds less than the weight he was at. In essence, Bobby realized he was essentially carrying around another person. The moment was the catalyst he needed to change. Rather than set any unrealistic expectations, Bobby decided to set the small, attainable goal of losing 2 pounds a week. So began his blog. And, guess what? It worked. Two years later, Bobby weighs in at 214 pounds (he looks great, by the way), and continues to take those small baby steps that are helping him achieve a healthy body. Bravo.
Several low carb diets are gaining prominence these days. But they can prove to be unhealthy as they often eliminate whole food groups, thus depriving you of the nutrients from those food groups. These diets are often high in saturated unhealthy fats that can cause high cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease. Some other diets eliminate dairy foods like milk, yoghurt and cheese. These food items are a good source of calcium which is vital for healthy bones and their proper growth. So think hard before you decide to get on a diet.
I am so proud of you!!! This is a really inspirational story. Losing the weight *is* possible. I went through a lot of weight issues (both on the too low and too high end) in high school and my first year of college. I feel like I’ve finally got to a decent place, but I really need to watch what I eat more and exercise!! My walks to and from class (20 min each way) are good but definitely not enough. I have a few JM movies I should pull out though..after reading what you said about her metabolism one it reminded me of how hard they are.

About: My Fat Friend Blog mixes two total opposites: Alex, the “fat friend” who is trying to lose weight and get fit. Sarah is the “not-fat friend,” the one who is really into fitness and healthy eating and who is on a mission to help Alex learn to love it the way she does. The blog is very, very new (just started in March), but so far, so good. The posts are entertaining, have fun photos and will have you laughing out loud.

Basically, the effect of exercise on our weight is vastly overrated. That’s why it’s only number 15 on this list. There are other things you need to take care of first. It’s not a good idea to eat bad food, drink sugar water (so-called “sports drinks”) or be on medications which force you to exercise for hours daily just to compensate. Metaphorically that’s like digging a hole, into which you put your ladder, on which you stand and paint the basement-level windows of your house.
About: Cary has a big personality, a personality that comes through every single post she writes. She’s trying to lose 100 pounds, and she has the same kinds of ups and downs we all do when we’re losing weight, one of the many things that makes her so appealing. Her blog is her “me-place” to cry, moan and spill painful thoughts. But it’s also a place where she shares her triumphs, happy moments and steps to uncover (little by little) herself.
Sure, you can lose weight quickly. There are plenty of fad diets that work to shed pounds rapidly -- while leaving you feeling hungry and deprived. But what good is losing weight only to regain it? To keep pounds off permanently, it's best to lose weight slowly. And many experts say you can do that without going on a "diet." Instead, the key is making simple tweaks to your lifestyle.
In Part 1 of this series, we covered everything but the hormones. But now it’s time for the million dollar estrogen question: do female hormones make it harder for women to lose weight? And if they do, what can you do about it? In this article, we’ll look at the pro- and anti-fat effects of estrogen (yes, there are both!), what this means for weight loss, and how diet can affect estrogen levels in various ways.
If you have been weight stable for a period of time and you feel energetic and strong, maybe it’s time to revise your goals or at least your timeline. For now, focus on the rediscovered metabolically healthy you, feeling well and functioning well. You’ll be amazed at what can happen when you stop letting weight, especially a specific weight, be the marker of your success.
If you want to lose weight, you’d better avoid special “low-carb” products that are full of carbs. This should be obvious, but creative marketers are doing all they can to fool you (and get your money). They will tell you that you can eat cookies, pasta, ice cream, bread and plenty of chocolate on a low-carb diet, as long as you buy their brand. They’re full of carbohydrates. Don’t be fooled.
Over the summer, I began to figure out what "eating healthy" even meant. I spent the summer learning to balance meals with protein, veggies, fruits, and carbs. I learned what kinds of foods were good for me and ate less and less processed foods. Once the healthy foods were a regular part of my routine, I didn't have to think as much about making healthy and smart choices. My self-control was more focused on trying to avoid slipping into old habits. 
Hey, I read this guide from the top to bottom (thoroughly might I say) and I feel that this might be a little rigourous for me. I need to lose weight and I’m only 12. 5’5 and 180 pounds. I don’t want to run/walk the treadmill, when I have a very nice neighborhood to walk about, but my parents won’t let me. I occasionally do about 20 situps/20 pushups, I play basketball. I don’t think I can do bicep curls or whatever you called them, no offence. What do you recommend I do?
Eat more protein. Protein is required by the body to repair damaged cells and plays a vital role in growth and development.[3] But it can also play a role in weight loss. Diets high in protein tend to make people feel fuller, and when paired with a reduction in carbohydrate intake these diets can help with weight loss.[4] However, it's important to remember that not all sources of protein are good for you: red meat and full-fat dairy products, though high in protein, can also increase the risk of heart disease.[5] Good sources of protein include:[6]
Nuts. It’s very easy to eat until the nuts are gone, regardless of how full you are. A tip: According to science, salted nuts are harder to stop eating than unsalted nuts. Salted nuts tempt you to more overeating. Good to know. Another tip: Avoid bringing the entire bag to the couch, preferably choose a small bowl instead. I often eat all the nuts in front of me, whether I’m hungry or not.
Attend a weight loss camp. Sometimes sticking with an exercise routine and diet plan is too challenging. Old habits and daily routines will steer you back to your old foods and activities at every turn. To combat this, many people enroll in residential weight loss programs that remove them from their daily lives. Sometimes called fitness retreats, these programs come in dozens of different styles, and are available for youth, adults and seniors.[12] You should always make sure before attending, that your weight loss camp of choice is equipped to safely handle your age and health specific needs.[13]

I’ve been so inspired by you, and reading this I might FINALLY be able to nip my calorie counting obsession in the bud. I’ve been counting my calories for every meal since about April of this year, and i have become, like you explained, obsessed. And i know it’s a problem, and i shouldn’t focus on that, but everytime i eat i just think of how many calories it is, and what I’ll have left over for my next meals. Reading your story really inspired me and starting today i’m going to start trying to NOT COUNT. I deleted the counting app off of my phone, and im giving it a go!
We know that shedding unwanted pounds used to mean giving up your favorite foods, logging hours at the gym, and being hungry (and hangry) all the time. Fortunately, dropping a dress size (or two) doesn’t have to be that complicated or torturous. Sure, losing any significant amount of weight requires lifestyle changes and some hard work, but it all boils down to simple choices.
*NuSI stands for ‘Nutrition Science Initiative.’  It was a not-for-profit organization that sponsored research attempting to objectively answer some basic questions about low carbohydrate and ketogenic diets.  In this particular study, they paid for a very meticulous study at 4 different top-notch academic sites comparing energy expenditure, first on a high carb and then a ketogenic diet in a total of 17 individuals.  In order to have the best chance of changing the negative mainstream bias against nutritional ketosis, NuSI chose some of the most steadfast ‘ketone skeptics’ in academia to run this study.  
If you want to lose weight you should start by avoiding sugar and starch (like bread, pasta and potatoes). This is an old idea: For 150 years or more there have been a huge number of weight-loss diets based on eating fewer carbs. What’s new is that dozens of modern scientific studies have proven that, yes, low carb is the most effective way to lose weight.
Fighting belly fat is 80% healthy diet. Reduce calories by filling yourself up with protein, vegetables, whole grains, and replacing bad habit snacks with good ones. For example, if you have a sugar craving, replace your calorie laden latte with a Muscle Milk lite, one of my favorites, because it has zero sugar and a ton of protein that will satiate while also torching my sugar craving! Another great trick is a sprinkle of cinnamon in your morning coffee or oatmeal- the spice has been shown to help stabilize blood sugar. It also slows the rate at which food exits the stomach, which helps you feel fuller longer.

This is my first time to your blog, I found it when googling “Instant Pot Weight loss”. Reading your story, it was like reading my own biography, seriously its scary lol. I am so glad you have found a healthy balance. I struggle working as a nurse with crazy shift hours, a hubby working crazy shift hours and a toddler (who eats healthier than I do thanks to gerber organic food pouches – meanwhile i’m polishing off the bag of krispy kreme kruellers haha), – I HATE cooking/meal planning. My struggle is real with needing stupid easy but healthy recipes. Your story is inspiring because I feel like we could be soul sisters haha and I have hope that i can learn to cook and eat better not only for myself but for my hubby and baby.
Insulin (in-suh-lin): A hormone made by the cells in your pancreas. Insulin helps your body store the glucose (sugar) from your meals. If you have diabetes and your pancreas is unable to make enough of this hormone, you may be prescribed medicines to help your liver make more or make your muscles more sensitive to the available insulin. If these medicines are not enough, you may be prescribed insulin shots.

CONTENT DISCLAIMER: The information presented on BrainyWeightLoss.com is educational in nature and is provided only as general information. This website is not designed to, and should not be construed to, provide medical advice to you or any other individual for diagnosing, treating or curing any disease and is not intended as a substitute for medical or professional care and treatment... more >>
While many professionals tout light bouts of resistance training for women, the truth is that light weight will only allow the body to adapt to so much. While it may seem counterintuitive, using heavier weights can have a more favorable outcome for weight loss.[7] Not only does heavy resistance training create a greater calorie expenditure for up to 24 hours post-workout, but it can also help you add muscle mass, which helps you burn more calories at rest!
Becky struggled with her weight nearly her entire life—her weight hitting nearly 250 pounds at her highest. After years of trying to lose weight, she finally had a breakthrough when she decided to change her mindset about weight loss. Before it was all about finding a quick fix—now, her philosophy is about making one small change at a time. With her new mindset, Becky was able to lose over 100 pounds! She shares healthy, and not-so-healthy recipes on her blog, along with healthy living tips and motivation.
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